Symptoms & Solutions

Chiropractic care is not treatment for disease and conditions in the medical sense. It is rather the attempt to restore health and spinal integrity by realigning the vertebrae of the spine to allow the normal transmission of nerve impulses from the brain to the body. When restored brain body communication is facilitated and maintained, many diseases and conditions self correct.

However, the chiropractic profession recognizes that both the state of health and the presence of disease may be a consequence of multiple factors and not every condition will respond to spinal adjustments. Here we reference specific disorders to published studies that appear to show, from a clinical standpoint, a relationship between the patient's health complaint and the correction or reduction of the upper cervical subluxation.

The conditions range from various musculoskeletal complaints to conditions affecting almost every organ system of the human body. The following is a review of the peer-reviewed literature and presentations at research conferences that reveals the documented correlation between upper cervical specific chiropractic care and the improvement of various musculoskeletal complaints. This list is followed by a bibliography of non-musculoskeletal conditions that have been studied or documented under upper cervical care.

Musculoskeletal Complaints

  • Neck pain/dysfunction1-9
  • Cervical herniated disc10-13
  • Cervical curve distortion14-18
  • Cervicobrachialgia19-22
  • Motor vehicle trauma23-25
  • Scalenus anticus syndrome26
  • Torticollis27-35
  • Headaches2,8,36-44
  • Low back pain3,45-55
  • Postural distortion41,44,55-59
  • Scoliosis60,61
  • Knee pain62

Whole Body Health Complaints

Peer reviewed studies, case reports, and research presentations have documented direct or indirect improvement from upper cervical care of various health related issues such as:

  • Ageusia63
  • Anosmia63
  • Arnold-Chiari malformation11,64
  • Asthma41,65-68
  • Athletic performance69
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder18,23,41,70
  • Autism71-73
  • Bell’s palsy74
  • Bone density75
  • Bowel dysfunction76-78
  • Cerebral palsy79
  • Chronic fatigue syndrome80,81
  • Clonus82
  • Cystic hygroma83
  • Diabetes type II84
  • Febrility85
  • Health enhancement86-90
  • Hearing loss91
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma92
  • HIV93,94
  • Hypertension95-98
  • Infantile colic99,100
  • Meniere’s disease101,102
  • Mental disorders41,43,103-105
  • Multiple sclerosis106-109
  • Nocturnal enuresis110
  • Otalgia/otitis media7,111
  • Parkinson’s disease108,112
  • Pulmonary function113
  • Reflex sympathetic dystrophy114
  • Scheuermann’s disease54
  • Seizure disorders43,110,115-118
  • Sleep disorders8,41,43
  • Stomach problems119,120
  • Tinnitus/vertigo91,121,122
  • Tourette’s syndrome41,123
  • Trigeminal neuralgia (TN)124-32
  • Visual acuity133

The abundance of case reports and studies presented provides compelling evidence regarding the deleterious effects of the upper cervical subluxation and the potential benefits of upper cervical care. This research is more impressive when one considers how few doctors worldwide are proficient in this procedure and how little financial support has been given for research. Given the anatomical, bio-mechanical and neurological complexity of the upper cervical spine, this sub-specialty of chiropractic care is an underutilized aspect of providing comprehensive healthcare.

References

  1. Saks BS, Halan M, Hoiriis KT, Pfleger B. A clinical study of the effectiveness of upper cervical chiropractic adjustments on non-specific cervicalgia: a pilot study. 12th annual upper cervical conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 18-19, 1995.
  2. Woodfield C, Wallace H, Smith M, Dickholtz M. A Comparison of outcome and process measures to determine the effectiveness of an upper cervical chiropractic correction. 14th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 22-23, 1997.
  3. Dickholtz M, Woodfield C. Atlas correction of patients with neck and back pain using the NUCCA technique. 16th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 20-21, 1999.
  4. McCoy M, Paez P. Response to specific upper cervical adjustment in a patient with multiple neuromusculoskeletal complaints: a case study. 17th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, February 3-4, 2001.
  5. Sweat RW, Sweat MH. Improved cervical function with atlas orthogonal adjustments: a pilot study in preparation for a federal research proposal. 9th annual vertebral subluxation research conference, Sherman college of straight chiropractic, Spartanburg, SC, October 13-14, 2001.
  6. Whittingham W, Nilsson N. Active range of motion in the cervical spine increases after spinal manipulation (toggle recoil). J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2001; 24(9):552-5.
  7. Cowin R, Bryner P. Hearing loss, otalgia and neck pain: a case report on long-term chiropractic care that helped to improve quality of life. Chiropr J Aust, 2002; 32(4):119-30.
  8. Knutson G. Vectored upper cervical manipulation for chronic sleep bruxism, headache and cervical spine pain in a child. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2003; 26(6):e16.
  9. Rochester RP. Neck pain and disability outcomes following chiropractic upper cervical care:a retrospective case series. J Can Chiropr Assoc, 2009; 53(3):173-85.
  10. Licata F, Miller M. The treatment of herniated nucleus pulposus in the cervical spine using atlas orthogonal chiropractic technique. Conference proceedings of the chiropractic centennial foundation, July 1995.
  11. Brewer DJ. Nerve interference in the cervical spine. 12th annual upper cervical conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 18-19, 1995.
  12.  Robinson GK. Reabsorption of a herniated cervical disc following chiropractic treatment utilizing the atlas orthogonal technique: a case report. 14th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 22-23, 1997.
  13.  Eriksen K. Management of cervical herniated disc with upper cervical chiropractic care: a case study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1998; 21(1):51-6.
  14.  McAlpine JE. Subluxation induced cervical myelopathy: a pilot study. Chiropr Res J, 1991; 2(1):7-22.
  15.  Dobson GJ. Structural changes in the cervical spine following spinal adjustments in a patient with os odontoideum: a case report. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, 1996; 1(1):37-40.
  16.  Reynolds C. Reduction of hypolordosis of the cervical spine and forward head posture with specific upper cervical adjustment and the use of a home therapy cushion. Chiropr Res J, 1998; 5(1):23-7.
  17.  Kessinger RC, Boneva DV. Case study: acceleration/deceleration injury with angular kyphosis. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2000; 23(4):279-87.
  18. Cassista G. Improvement in a child with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, kyphotic cervical curve and vertebral subluxation undergoing chiropractic care. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, April 20, 2009:1-5.
  19. Glick DM. Conservative chiropractic care of cervicobrachialgia. Chiropr Res J, 1989; 1(3): 49-52.
  20. Feeley KM. Conservative chiropractic care of frozen shoulder syndrome: a case study. Chiropr Res J, 1992; 2(2):31-7.
  21. Peet J. Brachial plexus injury in an infant with Down’s syndrome: a case study. Chiropr Pediatrics, 1994; 1(2):11-4.
  22. Hoiriis K, Jordan J. Response of frozen shoulder syndrome to care by upper cervical chiropractic adjustments: a multiple case study. Conference proceedings of the chiropractic centennial foundation, Washington, DC, July 1995.
  23. Hospers L. EEG and CEEG studies before and after upper cervical or SOT category II adjustment in children after head trauma, in epilepsy and in “hyperactivity”. Proceedings of the national conference on chiropractic & pediatrics, November 1992.
  24. Knutson GA. Atlas laterality/laterality & rotation and the angular acceleration of the head and neck in motor vehicle accident. Chiropr Res J, 1996; 3(3):11-9.
  25. Carleton J, et al. Resolution of cervical complications secondary to motor vehicle accidents by the application of stereotactic cervical alignment (SCALE) methods: statistical review of 54 patients. J Whiplash Rel Dis, 2006; 5(1):15-24.
  26. Knutson GA. Thermal asymmetry of the upper extremity in scalenus anticus syndrome,leg-length inequality and response to chiropractic adjustment. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1997; 20(7):476-81.
  27. Gutmann G. Blocked atlantal nerve syndrome, in infants and small children. Man Med, Springer-Verlag, 1987.      
  28. Biedermann H. Kinematic imbalance due to suboccipital strain in newborns. J Man Med, 1992; 6(5):151-6.
  29. Killinger LZ. Torticollis: a chiropractic case study. Palmer J Res, 1995; 2(2):23-6.
  30. Knutson GA. Chiropractic correction of atlantoaxial rotatory fixation. J Manipulative        Physiol Ther, 1996; 19(4):268-72.
  31.  Bolton PS, Bolton SP. Acute cervical torticollis and Palmer upper cervical specific technique: a report of three cases. Chiropr J Australia, 1996; 26(3):89-93.
  32. Biedermann H, Koch L. Zur differntialdiagnos des KISS-syndroms. Man Med, 1996; 34(3):73-81.
  33. Knutson GA. Abnormal upper cervical joint alignment and the neurologic component of the atlas subluxation complex. Chiropr Res J, 1997; 4(1):5-9.
  34. James KA. Upper cervical chiropractic care for spasmodic torticollis cases. 15th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 21-22, 1998.
  35. Biedermann H. Manual therapy in children: with special emphasis on the upper cervical spine. InThe cranio-cervical syndrome, (ed. Vernon H), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.
  36.  Mathis P. Specific upper cervical adjusting in the supine position. Chiropr Res J, 1993; 2(4):1-5.
  37. Whittingham W, Ellis WB, Molyneux TP. The effect of manipulation (toggle recoil technique) for headaches with upper cervical joint dysfunction: a pilot study. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1994; 17(6):369-75.
  38. Killinger LZ. Chiropractic treatment of cervicogenic headaches: a brief report. Palmer J Res, 1994; 1(2):48-50.
  39. Knutson GA, Jacob M. Possible manifestation of temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction on chiropractic cervical x-ray studies. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 1999; 22(1): 32-7.
  40. Brown, S. Case study: use of an upper cervical specific chiropractic technique in a subject with chronic migraines. 130th annual meeting of the American public health association, November 11, 2002.
  41. Elster EL. Upper cervical chiropractic care for a nine-year-old male with Tourette syndrome, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, asthma, insomnia, and headaches: a case report. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, July 12, 2003:1-11.
  42. Elster EL. Upper cervical chiropractic care for a patient with chronic migraine headaches with an appendix summarizing an additional 100 headache cases. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, August 3, 2003:1-10.
  43. Elster EL. Treatment of bipolar, seizure, and sleep disorders and migraine headaches utilizing a chiropractic technique. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2004; 27(3):E5.
  44. Palmer J, Dickholtz M. Improvement in radiographic measurements, posture, pain & quality of life in non-migraine headache patients undergoing upper cervical chiropractic care: a retrospective practice based study. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, June 4, 2009:1-11.
  45. Hoiriis KT. Case report: management of post-surgical chronic low back pain with upper cervical adjustment. Chiropr Res J, 1989; 1(3):37-42.
  46. Vaillancourt PJ, Collins KF. Case report: management of post-surgical low back syndrome with upper cervical adjustment. Chiropr Res J, 1993; 2(3):1-16.
  47. Robinson SS, Collins KF, Grostic JD. A retrospective study: patients with chronic low back pain managed with specific upper cervical adjustments. Chiropr Res J, 1993; 2(4):10-6.
  48. Sweat R. Correction of multiple herniated lumbar disc by chiropractic intervention. J Chiropr Case Reports, 1993; 1(1):14-7.
  49. Oliverio AB. Review of the literature adjusting only the cervical spine and its effect on low back pain. Chiropr Res J, 1994; 3(1):3-6.
  50. Hoiriis KT, Pfleger B, McDuffie FC, Alattar M, Owens EF. Design and implementation of a randomized controlled clinical trial of chiropractic care versus drug therapy for sub-acute low back pain. Chiropr Res J, 1997; 4(2):50-63.
  51. Knutson GA. Rapid elimination of chronic back pain and suspected long-term postural distortion with upper cervical vectored manipulation: a novel hypothesis for chronic subluxation/joint dysfunction. Chiropr Res J, 1999; 6(2):57-64.
  52. Kessinger RC, Boneva DV. A new approach to the upper cervical specific, knee-chest adjusting procedure: part I. Chiropr Res J, 2000; 7(1):14-32.
  53. White B, Kessinger RC. The upper cervical spine and chronic lumbar disc degeneration with muscular atrophy. 17th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, February 3-4, 2001.
  54. Edenfield BA. A case report: upper cervical chiropractic care for an adult patient with Scheuermann’s disease and back pain. 17th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, February 3-4, 2001.
  55. Hoiriis KT, et al. A randomized clinical trial comparing chiropractic adjustments to muscle relaxants for subacute low back pain. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2004; 27(6):388-98.
  56. Knutson GA. Moderation of postural distortion following upper cervical facet joint block injection: a case study. Chiropr Res J, 1998; 5(1):28-34.
  57. Sherwood KR, Brickner DS, Jennings DJ, Mattern JC. Postural changes after reduction of the atlanto-axial subluxation. J Chiropr Res, 1989; 5(4):96-100.
  58. Seemann DC. Bilateral weight differential and functional short leg: an analysis of pre and post data after reduction of an atlas subluxation. Chiropr Res J, 1993; 2(3):33-8.
  59. Seemann DC. Anatometer measurements: a field study intra- and inter-examiner reliability and pre to post changes following an atlas adjustment. Chiropr Res J, 1999; 6(1):7-9.
  60. Eriksen K. Correction of juvenile idiopathic scoliosis after primary upper cervical care: a case study. Chiropr Res J, 1996; 3(3):25-33.
  61. Basu KS, Blankenship NK. Chiropractic and scoliosis: a case study. Chiropr Res J, 1999; 6(2):71-6.
  62. Brown M, Vaillancourt P. Case report: upper cervical adjusting for knee pain. Chiropr Res J, 1993; 2(3):6-9.
  63. Filosa DA. A remission of anosmia and ageusia following chiropractic adjustments. Res Forum, 1988; 4(2):43-5.
  64. Smith JL. Effects of upper cervical subluxation concomitant with a mild Arnold-Chiarimalformation: a case study. Chiropr Res J, 1997; 4(2):77-81.
  65. Killinger LZ. Chiropractic care in the treatment of asthma. Palmer J Res, 1995; 2(3):74-7.
  66. Peet JB, Marko SK, Piekarczyk W. Chiropractic response in the pediatric patient with asthma: a pilot study. Chiro Pediatrics, 1995; 1(4):9-13.
  67.  Peet JB. Case study: eight year old female with chronic asthma. Chiropr Pediatrics, 1997; 3(2):9-12.
  68.  Hunt JM. Upper cervical chiropractic care of a pediatric patient with asthma: a case study. J Clin Chiropr Pediatr, 2000; 5(1):318-21.
  69. Schwartzbauer J, Kolber J, Schwartzbauer M, Hart J, Zhang J. Athletic performance and physiological measures in baseball players following upper cervical chiropractic care: a pilot study. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, 1997; 1(4):33-9.
  70. Sweat MH. Attention deficit disorder. 12th annual upper cervical conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 18-19, 1995.
  71.  Aguilar AL. Can chiropractic care effectively alter the behaviors exhibited in autistic children? 12thannual upper cervical conference,  Life College, Marietta, GA, November 18-19, 1995.
  72.  Aguilar AL, Grostic JD, Pfleger B. Chiropractic care and behavior in autistic children. JClin Chiropr Pediatr, 2000; 5(1):293-304.
  73.  Khorshid KA, et al. Clinical efficacy of upper cervical versus full spine chiropractic care on children with autism: a randomized clinical trial. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, March 9, 2006:1-7.
  74. Kessinger R, Boneva D. Bell’s palsy and the upper cervical spine. Chiropr Res J, 1999; 6(2):47-56.
  75.  Kessinger R, Boneva D, White PB. Bone mineral density changes following upper cervical upper cervical care. 9th annual vertebral subluxation research conference, Sherman College of Straight Chiropractic, Spartanburg, SC, October 13-14, 2001.
  76. Eriksen K. Effects of upper cervical correction on chronic constipation. Chiropr Res J, 1994; 3(1):19-22.
  77.  Marko SK. Case study-the effect of chiropractic care on an infant with problems of constipation.Chiropr Pediatrics, 1994; 1(3):23-4.
  78. Hunt JM. Upper cervical chiropractic care of an infant with irregular bowel function: a case study. J Clin Chiropr Pediatr, 2000; 5(1):312-4.
  79. Collins KF, et al. The efficacy of upper cervical chiropractic care on children and adults with cerebral palsy: a preliminary report. Chiro Pediatr, 1994; 1(1):13-5.
  80.  Woodfield C. Progress report on chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) study. 14th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 22-23, 1997.
  81.  Woodfield C, Dickholtz M. The effect of upper cervical chiropractic corrections on patients with chronic fatigue syndrome. 15th annual upper cervical conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 21-22, 1998.
  82.  Hoiriis KT. Clonus resolved. 11th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 19-20, 1994.
  83.  Hunt JM. Upper cervical chiropractic care and the resolution of cystic hygroma in a twelve-year-old female: a case study. J Clin Chiropr Pediatr, 2000; 5(1):315-7.
  84. Webster SK, Dickholtz M, Woodfield C, Bakris GL. Acute effect of NUCCA cervical adjustment on patients with diabetes type II. 17th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, February 3-4, 2001.
  85.  Peet JB. Adjusting the febrile pediatric patient. Chiropr Pediatrics, 1996; 2(3):11-2.
  86.  Hoiriis KT, Owens EF, Pfleger B. Changes in general health status during upper cervical chiropractic care: a practice-based research project.Chiropr Res J, 1997; 4(1):18-26.
  87.  Owens EF, Hoiriis KT, Burd D. Changes in general health status during upper cervical   chiropractic care: PBR progress report. Chiropr Res J, 1998; 5(1):9-16.
  88.  Hoiriis KT, Burd D, Owens EF. Changes in general health status during upper cervical chiropractic care: a practice-based research project update. Chiropr Res J, 1999; 6(2): 65-70
  89.  Brown SH, Salminen B, Hinson R, Owens E. Comparison of radiographic analysis for three upper cervical specific techniques. 15th annual upper cervical conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 21-22, 1998.
  90.  Wallace HL, Dickholtz M. Rand 36 as an outcome measure in NUCCA practice. 13th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 16-17, 1996.
  91. Kessinger RC, Boneva DV. Vertigo, tinnitus, and hearing loss in the geriatric patient. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2000; 23(5):352-62.
  92.  Jenson CD, Lee G. Remission of hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient under chiropractic care: a case report. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, 1998; 2(3):125-30.
  93.  Selano JL, Hightower BC, Pfleger B, Collins KF, Grostic JD. The effects of specific upper cervical adjustments on the CD4 counts of HIV positive patients. Chiropr Res J, 1994; 3(1):32-9.
  94.  Freedman SI. Two case studies of HIV positive patients receiving “specific” chiropractic care utilizing knee-chest specific adjustment technique on C1-C2 vertebrae only. 12th annual upper cervical conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 18-19, 1995.
  95. Goodman R. Hypertension and the atlas subluxation complex. J Chiropr Res Clin
  96. Investigation, 1992; 8(2):30-2.
  97.  Knutson, G. Significant changes in systolic blood pressure post vectored upper cervical
  98. adjustment vs resting control groups: a possible effect of the cervicosympathetic and/or pressor reflex. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2001; 24:101-9.
  99.   Bakris, GL et al. Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, October 29, 2007:1-9.
  100.  Bakris G, et al. Atlas vertebra realignment and achievement of arterial pressure goal in hypertensive patients: a pilot study. J Hum Hypertens, 2007; 21(5):347-52.
  101.  Killinger LZ, Azad A. Chiropractic care of infantile colic: a case study. J Clin Chiropr Pediatrics, 1998; 3(1):203-6.
  102. Biedermann H. Manual therapy in children: with special emphasis on the upper cervical spine. InThe cranio-cervical syndrome, (ed. Vernon H), Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann, 2001.
  103. Boneva D. Two case studies: Meniere’s disease and cervical spine trauma post upper
  104. cervical specific chiropractic care. 15th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 21-22, 1998.
  105. Burcon MT. Upper cervical protocol for ten Meniere’s patients. 9th annual vertebral subluxation research conference, Sherman college of straight chiropractic, Spartanburg, SC, October 13-14, 2001.
  106. 103.          Thomas MD, Wood J. Upper cervical adjustments may improve mental function. J Man  
  107. Med, 1992; 6:215-6.
  108. Burroughs GH. The relationship between upper cervical subluxations and learning disabilities. 12thannual upper cervical conference, Life College, Marietta, GA, November 18-19, 1995.
  109. Genthner GC, Friedman HL, Studley CF. Improvement in depression following reduction of upper cervical vertebral subluxation using orthospinology technique. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, November 4, 2005: 1-4.
  110. Kirby SL. A case study: the effects of chiropractic on multiple sclerosis. Chiropr Res J,
  111. 1994; 3(1):7-12.
  112. Killinger LZ, Azad A. Multiple sclerosis patients under chiropractic care: a retrospective study.Palmer J Res, 1997; 2(4):96-100.
  113. Elster E. Eighty-one patients with multiple sclerosis and Parkinson’s disease undergoing upper cervical chiropractic care to correct vertebral subluxation: a retrospective analysis. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, August 2, 2004:1-9.
  114. Elster EL. Upper cervical chiropractic management of a multiple sclerosis patient: a case report. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, 2001; 4(2):22-30.
  115. Prax JC. Upper cervical chiropractic care of the pediatric patient: a review of the literature. J Clin Chiropr Ped, 1999; 4(1):257-63.
  116. Peet JB. Case study:  chiropractic results with a child with reoccurring otitis media accompanied by effusion. Chiropr Pediatrics, 1996; 2(2):8-10.
  117. Elster EL. Upper cervical chiropractic management of a patient with Parkinson’s disease: a case report. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2000; 23(8):573-7.
  118. Kessinger R. Changes in pulmonary function associated with upper cervical specific chiropractic care. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, 1997; 1(3):43-9.
  119. James KA. Upper cervical chiropractic care in two cases: reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) and dysautonomia. 16th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 20-21, 1999. 
  120. Goodman RJ, Mosby JS. Cessation of a seizure disorder: correction of the atlas
  121. subluxation complex. J Chiropr Res Clin Invest, 1990; 6(2):43-6.
  122. Duff BA. Documented chiropractic results on a case diagnosed as myoclonic seizures. J Chiropr Res Clin Invest, 1992; 8(3):56-7.
  123. Pistolese RA. Epilepsy and seizure disorders: a review of literature relative to chiropractic care of children. J Manipulative Physiol Ther, 2001; 24(3): 199-205.
  124. Hubbard TA, Crisp CA, Vowles B. Upper cervical chiropractic care for a 25-year-old woman with myoclonic seizures. J Chiropr Med, 2010; 9:90-4.
  125. Peet JB. Case study: three year old female with acute stomach problems. Chiropr Pediatrics, 1997; 3(1):10-1.
  126. Hubbard TA, Crisp CA. Cessation of cyclic vomiting in a 7-year-old girl after upper cervical chiropractic care: a case report. J Chiropr Med, 2010; 9:179-83.
  127. Burcon M. Upper cervical protocol to reduce vertebral subluxation in ten subjects with menieres: a case series. , J Vertebral Subluxation ResJune 2, 2008:1-8.
  128. Burcon MT. Upper cervical specific protocol and results for 139 patients with medically diagnosed meniere’s disease. , J Vertebral Subluxation Res November 14, 2010:1-10.
  129. Trotta N. The response of an adult Tourette patient to life upper cervical adjustments.
  130. Chiropr Res J, 1989; 1(3):43-8.
  131. Grostic JD. Dentate ligament — cord distortion hypothesis. Chiropr Res J, 1988; 1(1):47-55.
  132. Hinson R. Upper cervical neurology and trigeminal neuralgia. 16th annual upper cervical spine conference, Life university, Marietta, GA, November 20-21, 1999.
  133. Weigel G, Casey KF. Striking back the trigeminal neuralgia and face pain handbook, 2nd edition. Trigeminal neuralgia association, 2004.
  134. Hinson R. A model of cervical spine involvement in trigeminal neuralgia. Annual meeting of the society of neurosciences, New Orleans, LA, November 2000.
  135. Hinson R. Chiropractic management of trigeminal neuralgia: outcomes for pain and depression. 6thBiennial congress of the world federation of chiropractic, Paris, France, May 21-26, 2001.
  136. Hinson R, Brown S. Chiropractic management of trigeminal neuralgia: a preliminary study. 130thannual meeting of the American public health association, November 11, 2002.
  137. Hinson R. Chiropractic management of facial pain. 4th biannual conference of the trigeminal neuralgia association. San Diego, CA, November 2002.
  138. Ierano JJ. Upper cervical chiropractic management of trigeminal neuralgia: a series of case reports.8th biennial congress of the world federation of chiropractic, Sydney, Australia, June 14-18, 2005.
  139. Burcon MT. Resolution of trigeminal neuralgia following chiropractic care to reduce cervical spine vertebral subluxations: a case study. , J Vertebral Subluxation ResOctober 26, 2009:1-7.
  140. Kessinger R, Boneva D. Changes in visual acuity in patients receiving upper cervical specific chiropractic care. J Vertebral Subluxation Res, 1998; 2(1):43-9.